Bombay Hook Comprises 15,978 acres, approximately four-fifths of which is tidal salt marsh. The refuge has one of the largest expanses of nearly unaltered tidal salt marsh in the mid-Atlantic region. It also includes 1,100 acres of impounded fresh water pools, brushy and timbered swamps, 1,100 acres of agricultural lands, and timbered and grassy upland. The general terrain is flat and less than ten feet above sea level. Bombay Hook was established in 1937 as a link in the chain of refuges that extends from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. It is primarily a refuge and breeding ground for migrating birds and other wildlife. The value and importance of Bombay Hook for the protection and conservation of waterfowl has increased greatly over the years, primarily due to the loss of extensive surrounding marshland to urban and industrial development.